To see the historical aspect of Goa is also exciting as it makes you understand Goa better.
The history of Goa stretches back to 3rd century BC. It was the time when Goa was ruled by the Mauryan Empire. Later, it was ruled by the rulers of Satavahana dynasty of Kolhapur in Maharashtra. Their rule was passed on eventually to the Chalukyas of Badami. They ruled over Goa from 580 to 750. Over the next few centuries Goa was successively ruled by the Silharas in 1086 AD. The Kadambas consolidated their hold over Chandor from the 11th century AD to the 13th century AD.
After the Kadambas, Goa fell into the hands of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. Later it was ruled by the Yadavas of Devgiri.
Muslims had a political swing over the Konkan region from 1312-1370 AD. Goa came under Delhi Sultanate's governance. As the ruling grip was weak, by 1370 Harihara I of Vijayanagar won over. The monarchs of Vijayanagar ruled on for the next hundred years till 1469, after which the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga took over. After them, the area came to the Adil Shahis of Bijapur who built a palace in Panaji that houses the Secretariat today.
In 1498, the first European entered in India through sea route, named Vasco da Gama. He landed in Kozhikode in Kerala and later traveled to the region now called Old Goa or Velha Goa..
Portuguese arrived in India that changed the fate of Goa. They came with the intention of trade but ended up setting a colony here. They gradually succeeded and seized total control of spice trade from the European powers. Later, in 1510, Yusuf Adil Shah, the Bijapur king lost to the Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque of a local sovereign. This contributed to the permanent establishment and settlement of the Portuguese in Velha Goa.
The Portuguese intended to make Goa a colony and a naval base different from fortified enclaves set anywhere else along the Indian coasts. Portuguese did many historic deeds in Goa that has contributed in shaping the face of present Goa. They imposed the Inquisition under which missionaries converted many local residents to Christianity forcibly. Else, they were threatened with punishment or arrogation of titles, land or property. To escape this Inquisition and torturous behavior, thousand people escaped from the state and got settled in neighboring towns of Mangalore and Karwar.
The "Conspiracy Of The Pintos", in the 18th century, inspired by French Revolution was an important development in Goan history. It was the first ethnic rebellion against Portuguese rule in Goa. Portuguese were encouraged to marry the local Goan women and to settle down in Goa. Offspring of these unions, the Mestizo or mixed were considered favorably by the Portuguese rulers, but the Mestizos were looked down upon by the locals. Afterwards, the Portuguese created a senate that worked to maintain direct communications with the king. Capital was moved from Velha Goa to Panjim in 1843.
The Portuguese chapter in the historical saga of Goa was about to come to an end after India gained Independence from the British in 1947. At first, Portugal refused to agree to India's demand to hand over the control of its enclave. Finally, on 12th December 1961, the Indian army marched into Goa forcibly and took political control by force.
Goa became a Union Territory of the Indian Union for 26 Years. After that on 30th May 1987 it attained Statehood. Konkani, the Mother tongue of Goa was included in Indian constitution in August 1992.